Spalling

Concrete spalling refers to the deterioration or chipping away of concrete surfaces due to various factors such as freeze-thaw cycles, and the rapid expansion-contraction cycles and wet dough on hot concrete surface seen in pizza ovens . When a material spalls, it loses its structural integrity and aesthetic appeal, leading to potentially unsafe conditions. This deterioration occurs as moisture penetrates the concrete, causing internal pressure when it expands and contracts, thereby cracking and breaking the surface. As spalling progresses, it can compromise the strength and durability of the concrete structure, necessitating repair or replacement to ensure safety and longevity.